During the last decades, international development cooperation focused mainly on the social and environmental aspects of sustainable development. However, experience shows clearly that if economic progress is lacking, social development will fail and the environment will be irreversibly damaged.
A sustainable industrial policy based on the principles of the Circular Economy, which incorporates the strengths of the respective regional natural resources, geography and geology and is characterized by (good) governance, is lacking in most of today’s developing countries.
With the enormous cost degression of equipment for the use of renewable energy resources and the development of modular structures to make hydrogen available as energy carrier and raw material for the chemical industry, industrial development policies should be formulated or revised, promoted and implemented.
More than a decade ago, Ethiopia recognized that an industrial policy must include education and training and has made impressive progress in economic and social development to date. Especially the resource-rich countries of Africa should formulate coherent sectoral policies as is the case in Rwanda. Sustainable economic growth with a high demand for labor is essential to generate increasing prosperity and to reduce migratory pressure, despite the high population growth prevalent in many countries.
Eco-efficiency in industrial and commercial parks, i.e. the use of unavoidable waste energy and products (heat, gases, liquids, waste) as input for other processes is state of the art in industrialized countries. In developing countries, such plans have so far only been implemented in relatively few exceptional cases. The use of renewable energy resources and the design and production of products in line with the principles of the Circular Economy are indispensable pillars of sustainalbe development.